Using the API

Establishing a connection

The simplest way to establish a connection, assuming the message broker is running on the local machine, is:

>>> import stomp
>>> c = stomp.Connection([('', 62613)])
>>> c.start()
>>> c.connect('admin', 'password', wait=True)

By default this represents a STOMP 1.1 connection. You can request a specific version of the connection using one of the following:

>>> c = stomp.Connection10([('', 62613)])
>>> c = stomp.Connection11([('', 62613)])
>>> c = stomp.Connection12([('', 62613)])

The first parameter to a Connection is host_and_ports. This is a list of tuples, each containing ip address (which could be an ipv6 address) and the port where the message broker is listening for stomp connections. The general idea with the list is to try each address until a successful socket connection is established (giving the ability to provide multiple brokers for failover).

An example of setting up a connection with failover addresses might be:

>>> import stomp
>>> c = stomp.Connection([('', 61613), ('', 62613)])

And here’s an example of an ipv6 connection:

>>> import stomp
>>> c = stomp.Connection(['fe80::a00:27ff:fe90:3f1a%en1', 62613])

There are a number of other parameters for initialising the connection (looking at the StompConnection12 class):

class stomp.connect.StompConnection12(host_and_ports=None, prefer_localhost=True, try_loopback_connect=True, reconnect_sleep_initial=0.1, reconnect_sleep_increase=0.5, reconnect_sleep_jitter=0.1, reconnect_sleep_max=60.0, reconnect_attempts_max=3, use_ssl=False, ssl_key_file=None, ssl_cert_file=None, ssl_ca_certs=None, ssl_cert_validator=None, wait_on_receipt=False, ssl_version=3, timeout=None, heartbeats=(0, 0), keepalive=None, vhost=None, auto_decode=True, auto_content_length=True)

Represents a 1.2 connection (comprising transport plus 1.2 protocol class). See stomp.transport.Transport for details on the initialisation parameters.

The start method is next - which performs the actual socket connection to the remote server and starts a separate receiver thread. The final step is to call the connect method (corresponding to the CONNECT frame):

Protocol12.connect(username=None, passcode=None, wait=False, headers=None, **keyword_headers)

Send a STOMP CONNECT frame. Differs from 1.0 and 1.1 versions in that the HOST header is enforced.

  • username (str) – optionally specify the login user
  • passcode (str) – optionally specify the user password
  • wait (bool) – wait for the connection to complete before returning
  • headers (dict) – a map of any additional headers to send with the subscription
  • keyword_headers – any additional headers to send with the subscription

Note that connect also allows for a map (dict) of headers to be provided, and will merge these with any additional named parameters to build the headers for the STOMP frame, allowing for non-standard headers to be transmitted to the broker.

Sending and receiving messages

Once the connection is established, you can send messages using the send method:

Protocol12.send(destination, body, content_type=None, headers=None, **keyword_headers)

Send a message to a destination in the messaging system (as per

  • destination (str) – the destination (such as a message queue - for example ‘/queue/test’ - or a message topic)
  • body – the content of the message
  • content_type (str) – the MIME type of message
  • headers (dict) – additional headers to send in the message frame
  • keyword_headers – any additional headers the broker requires

To receive messages back from the messaging system, you need to setup some sort of listener on your connection, and then subscribe to the destination (see STOMP subscribe). Listeners are simply a subclass which implements the methods in the ConnectionListener class (see this page for more detail). Stomp provides a few implementations of listeners, but the simplest is PrintingListener which just prints all interactions between the client and server. A simple example of this in action is:

>>> from stomp import *
>>> c = Connection([('', 62613)])
>>> c.set_listener('', PrintingListener())
>>> c.start()
>>> c.connect('admin', 'password', wait=True)
on_connecting 62613
on_send STOMP {'passcode': 'password', 'login': 'admin', 'accept-version': '1.2', 'host': ''}
on_connected {'server': 'apache-apollo/1.7.1', 'host-id': 'mybroker', 'session': 'mybroker-13e0', 'heart-beat': '100,10000', 'version': '1.2', 'user-id': 'admin'}
>>> c.subscribe('/queue/test', 123)
on_send SUBSCRIBE {'id': 123, 'ack': 'auto', 'destination': '/queue/test'}
>>> c.send('/queue/test', 'a test message')
on_send SEND {'content-length': 5, 'destination': '/queue/test'} b'a test message'
>>> on_before_message {'destination': '/queue/test', 'message-id': 'mybroker-13e01', 'subscription': '123', 'ack': '2', 'content-length': '5'} a test message
on_message {'destination': '/queue/test', 'message-id': 'mybroker-13e01', 'subscription': '123', 'ack': '2', 'content-length': '5'} a test message

You can see the responses from the message system in the on_connected, and on_message output. The stomp frames sent to the server can be seen in each on_send output (an initial STOMP connect frame, SUBSCRIBE and then SEND).

In the case of the subscribe method, as of STOMP 1.1, the id parameter is required (if connecting with STOMP 1.0, only the destination is required):

Protocol12.subscribe(destination, id, ack='auto', headers=None, **keyword_headers)

Subscribe to a destination

  • destination (str) – the topic or queue to subscribe to
  • id (str) – the identifier to uniquely identify the subscription
  • ack (str) – either auto, client or client-individual (see for more info)
  • headers (dict) – a map of any additional headers to send with the subscription
  • keyword_headers – any additional headers to send with the subscription

Note that listeners can be named so you can use more that one type of listener at the same time:

>>> c.set_listener('stats', StatsListener())
>>> c.set_listener('print', PrintingListener())

You unsubscribe from a topic or queue using the unique id for the subscription:

>>> c.subscribe('/queue/test', 123)
>>> c.unsubscribe(123)

Acks and Nacks

Acknowledgements are a way to tell the message server that a message was either consumed, or not. Assume a collection of clients on a server listening on a queue, and a message which requires significant processing. One of the clients receives the message, checks resource usage on the server and decides to send a nack as a consequence. The message server could, at that point, decide to send to a failover server for processing (that’s a possible use, anyway).

Use the client or client-individual acknowledgement parameter (see here for a description) with the subscription, in order to use acks and nacks. Afterwards, you use the message and subscription ids to ack or nack the message:

>>> conn.subscribe('/queue/test', id=4, ack='client')
on_before_message {'message-id': 'mybroker-14aa2', 'destination': '/queue/test', 'subscription': '4', 'content-length': '14'} test message 1
on_message {'message-id': 'mybroker-14aa2', 'destination': '/queue/test', 'subscription': '4', 'content-length': '14'} test message 1
>>> conn.ack('mybroker-14aa2', 2)

on_before_message {'message-id': 'mybroker-14ab2', 'destination': '/queue/test', 'subscription': '4', 'content-length': '14'} test message 2
on_message {'message-id': 'mybroker-14ab2', 'destination': '/queue/test', 'subscription': '4', 'content-length': '14'} test message 2
>>> conn.nack('mybroker-14ab2', 2)


The STOMP protocol provides a way to transmit messages to a broker inside a transaction, which are held on the server until the transaction is either committed - at which point they’re sent - or aborted - where the messages are discarded.

Begin a transaction using the begin method, which returns the transaction id you then use when sending messages (you can also generate your own transaction id and pass that as a parameter to begin):

>>> conn.subscribe('/queue/test', id=5)
>>> txid = conn.begin()
>>> conn.send('/queue/test', 'test1', transaction=txid)
>>> conn.send('/queue/test', 'test2', transaction=txid)
>>> conn.send('/queue/test', 'test3', transaction=txid)
>>> conn.commit(txid)

on_message {'subscription': '5', 'content-length': '5', 'destination': '/queue/test', 'message-id': 'mybroker-14b03', 'transaction': 'b39f3136-46a3-4e11-8ba8-845e36d48412'} test1
on_message {'subscription': '5', 'content-length': '5', 'destination': '/queue/test', 'message-id': 'mybroker-14b04', 'transaction': 'b39f3136-46a3-4e11-8ba8-845e36d48412'} test2
on_message {'subscription': '5', 'content-length': '5', 'destination': '/queue/test', 'message-id': 'mybroker-14b05', 'transaction': 'b39f3136-46a3-4e11-8ba8-845e36d48412'} test3

Abort a transaction (and discard the sent messages using abort):

>>> conn.subscribe('/queue/test', id=6)
>>> txid = conn.begin()
>>> conn.send('/queue/test', 'test4', transaction=txid)
>>> conn.send('/queue/test', 'test5', transaction=txid)
>>> conn.abort(txid)

Disconnect supports graceful shutdown/disconnections through a receipt parameter (automatically generated if you don’t provide it). The connection is only dropped when the server sends back a response to that receipt:

>>> conn.disconnect()
on_send DISCONNECT {'receipt': '825a5cd6-9e3c-4a72-8051-72348a94f5ce'}
on_receipt {'receipt-id': '825a5cd6-9e3c-4a72-8051-72348a94f5ce'}

Dealing with disconnects

You can use a listener to deal with connection failures, and gracefully reconnect. Consider the below ‘server’ code:

import os
import time
import stomp

def connect_and_subscribe(conn):
    conn.connect('guest', 'guest', wait=True)
    conn.subscribe(destination='/queue/test', id=1, ack='auto')

class MyListener(stomp.ConnectionListener):
    def __init__(self, conn):
        self.conn = conn

    def on_error(self, headers, message):
        print('received an error "%s"' % message)

    def on_message(self, headers, message):
        print('received a message "%s"' % message)
        for x in range(10):
        print('processed message')

    def on_disconnected(self):

conn = stomp.Connection([('localhost', 62613)], heartbeats=(4000, 4000))
conn.set_listener('', MyListener(conn))

The listener in this code has an, arguably broken, message handler (on_message) which takes longer to process than the heartbeat time of 4 seconds (4000); resulting in a heartbeat timeout when a message is received, and a subsequent disconnect. The on_disconnected method then reconnects and continues processing. You can test the results of this by running the above code, and sending a message using the following ‘client’:

import stomp
conn = stomp.Connection([('localhost', 62613)])
conn.connect('guest', 'guest', wait=True)
conn.send('/queue/test', 'test message')